This simple outline of the building of a homemade bio water filter for purification and filtration. When survival comes in mind, water takes top priority, but water is not always clean and drinkable, for that we can use filters. The biggest risk of drinking water are the waterborne pathogens. Bacteria, protozoa and many other microscopic parasites can be found in most water supplies, some of them can kill you, and some make you wish you were dead.
Instead of buying unnecessary and expensive bio water filters that have to be changed so you end up stockpiling them, you can make your own. This simple filtering system is used worldwide to purify water so it is drinkable. The bio water filter does not get rid of 100% of the microscopic parasites, but it does make it drinkable, and your body will be able to kill the rest that manage to slip through.
A bio water filter works exactly the same way as that of a sewage treatment plant. The standard for water treatment plants is that the water that leaves it, must be clean enough to drink. To make that happen, they function as a multi-stage web to remove anything harmful from the water. So a bio water filter uses a multi-stage approach to remove impurities and pathogens from the water that passes through, making the rest of the water that passes through drinkable.
The three separate layers in a bio water filter are: Gravel, Sand, and Activated Charcoal.
Each of these removes different things, leaving the water that comes out, safe to drink. The first layer, gravel, is used to remove large pieces of debris from the water. This includes things like small rocks, leaves, etc. The water then approaches the sand layer, which removes much smaller particulate matter that managed to pass the gravel. Finally, activated charcoal is used to remove bacteria and some chemicals.
Building the bio water filter:
To build one, you need the three layers mentioned above, along with five gallon buckets, screen, a few plastic plumbing fittings and a hole saw.
There are several ways in which you can get this done. We use plumbing fittings between the stages of the filter. By using a fitting, you can have better control over the water flow and make sure that the minerals do not migrate from one bucket to another.
To assemble the fittings, do the following:
* The fitting that is going to go on the inside of the bucket needs to have fiberglass screen stretched over it. That can be held in a place with a rubber band or O-ring. Gluing it makes it more secure.
* Cut a hole in the bottom center of two buckets, which is the right diameter for the threaded part of the fitting to go through. Cut the same size hole in the side of the third bucket, which is just above the bottom.
* Attach the fittings together with the bottom or side of bucket between them. The screened side of the fittings should be up. Use an O-ring between the fittings to create a seal.
* For the bottom bucket, the one that has the fitting through the side, you may want to add a valve, an angled fitting or a fitting with a flexible tube for the outlet. Whichever you choose should allow you to have the filtered water go into a fourth bucket, pitcher or the container.
* Cut a hole in the center of the lids for two buckets which is slightly larger than the fitting. You don’t need a tight fit here, rather one that will make it easy to stack to your buckets.
* To protect the screen from the weight of the sand and gravel put a cover over it. The easiest way to make that cover is with some small plastic cups. Drill a number of holes in the sides of the cups, so that the water can get through. Then glue the cup upside-down over the fitting.
* Before putting your gravel, sand and activated charcoal in the filter, it needs to be rinsed thoroughly to remove all dirt and silt. When you can put on these materials, without any dust fogging the water, then it is rinsed thoroughly enough.
* You will need to fill each bucket 2/3 to 3/4 full of the filter materials. The activated charcoal goes in the bottom bucket, which should be the one with the fitting on the side. Put one of the lids with the hole in it on this bucket. Set the bucket for the sand on top of it, and the bucket for the gravel on top. The top bucket’s lid does not need any hole in it. A plain lid can be used to keep any debris from falling into this bucket.
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